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Labeling of dangerous substances and preparations

 
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On the labels of some of our products you may find one or two of the symbols shown below. They graphically depict the danger level of the product.

 
Symbols and indications of danger for dangerous substances and preparations [1]

E: Explosive symbol O: Oxidizing symbol F+: Extremely flammable symbol F: Highly flammable symbol T+: Very toxic symbol
E : Explosive O : Oxidizing F+ : Extremely flammable F : Highly flammable T+ : Very toxic
T: Toxic symbol C: Corrosive symbol Xn: Harmful symbol Xi: Irritant symbol N: Dangerous to the environment symbol
T : Toxic C : Corrosive Xn : Harmful Xi : Irritant N : Dangerous to the environment

Definitions

The following substances and preparations are "dangerous" (EC-Directive 92/32/EEC) [2]:

Explosive substances and preparations: solid, liquid, pasty or gelatinous substances and preparations which may also react exothermically without atmospheric oxygen thereby quickly evolving gases, and which, under defined test conditions, detonate, quickly deflagrate or upon heating explode when partially confined.

Oxidising substances and preparations: substances and preparations which give rise to a highly exothermic reaction in contact with other substances, particularly flammable substances.

Extremely flammable substances and preparations: liquid substances and preparations having an extremely low flash-point and a low boiling-point and gaseous substances and preparations which are flammable in contact with air at ambient temperature and pressure.

Highly flammable substances and preparations:

  • substances and preparations which may become hot and finally catch fire in contact with air at ambient temperature without any application of energy, or
  • solid substances and preparations which may readily catch fire after brief contact with a source of ignition and which continue to burn or to be consumed after removal of the source of ignition, or
  • liquid substances and preparations having a very low flash-point, or
  • substances and preparations which, in contact with water or damp air, evolve highly flammable gases in dangerous quantities.

Flammable substances and preparations: liquid substances and preparations having a low flash-point.

Very toxic substances and preparations: substances and preparations which in very low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

Toxic substances and preparations: substances and preparations which in low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

Harmful substances and preparations: substances and preparations which may cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

Corrosive substances and preparations: substances and preparations which may, on contact with living tissues, destroy them.

Irritant substances and preparations: non-corrosive substances and preparations which, through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane, may cause inflammation.

Sensitizing substances and preparations: substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or if they penetrate the skin, are capable of eliciting a reaction of hypersensitization such that on further exposure to the substance or preparation, characteristic adverse effects are produced.

Carcinogenic substances and preparations: substances or preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce cancer or increase its incidence.

Mutagenic substances and preparations: substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce heritable genetic defects or increase their incidence.

Substances and preparations which are toxic for reproduction: substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may produce, or increase the incidence of, non-heritable adverse effects in the progeny and/or an impairment of male or female reproductive functions or capacity.

Substances and preparations which are dangerous for the environment: substances and preparations which, were they to enter the environment, would present or may present an immediate or delayed danger for one or more components of the environment.


 
Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations: R- and S-phrases [3]

 

Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations: R-phrases
R 1 Explosive when dry
R 2 Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition
R 3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition
R 4 Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds
R 5 Heating may cause an explosion
R 6 Explosive with or without contact with air
R 7 May cause fire
R 8 Contact with combustible material may cause fire
R 9 Explosive when mixed with combustible material
R 10 Flammable
R 11 Highly flammable
R 12 Extremely flammable
R 14 Reacts violently with water
R 15 Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases
R 16 Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances
R 17 Spontaneously flammable in air
R 18 In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture
R 19 May form explosive peroxides
R 20 Harmful by inhalation
R 21 Harmful in contact with skin
R 22 Harmful if swallowed
R 23 Toxic by inhalation
R 24 Toxic in contact with skin
R 25 Toxic if swallowed
R 26 Very toxic by inhalation
R 27 Very toxic in contact with skin
R 28 Very toxic if swallowed
R 29 Contact with water liberates toxic gas
R 30 Can become highly flammable in use
R 31 Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
R 32 Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
R 33 Danger of cumulative effects
R 34 Causes burns
R 35 Causes severe burns
R 36 Irritating to eyes
R 37 Irritating to respiratory system
R 38 Irritating to skin
R 39 Danger of very serious irreversible effects
R 40 Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
R 41 Risk of serious damage to eyes
R 42 May cause sensitization by inhalation
R 43 May cause sensitization by skin contact
R 44 Risk of explosion if heated under confinement
R 45 May cause cancer
R 46 May cause heritable genetic damage
R 48 Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure
R 49 May cause cancer by inhalation
R 50 Very toxic to aquatic organisms
R 51 Toxic to aquatic organisms
R 52 Harmful to aquatic organisms
R 53 May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R 54 Toxic to flora
R 55 Toxic to fauna
R 56 Toxic to soil organisms
R 57 Toxic to bees
R 58 May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment
R 59 Dangerous for the ozone layer
R 60 May impair fertility
R 61 May cause harm to the unborn child
R 62 Possible risk of impaired fertility
R 63 Possible risk of harm to the unborn child
R 64 May cause harm to breastfed babies
R 65 Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed
R 66 Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
R 67   Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness
R 68 Possible risk of irreversible effects

 


Combination of R-phrases
R 14/15 Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases
R 15/29 Contact with water liberates toxic, extremely flammable gas
R 20/21 Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin
R 20/22 Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed
R 20/21/22 Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 21/22 Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 23/24 Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
R 23/25 Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R 23/24/25 Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 24/25 Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 26/27 Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
R 26/28 Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R 26/27/28 Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 27/28 Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 36/37 Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
R 36/38 Irritating to eyes and skin
R 36/37/38 Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
R 37/38 Irritating to respiratory system and skin
R 39/23 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation
R 39/24 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin
R 39/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed
R 39/23/24 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R 39/23/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R 39/24/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 39/23/24/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 39/26 Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation
R 39/27 Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin
R 39/28 Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed
R 39/26/27 Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R 39/26/28 Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R 39/27/28 Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 39/26/27/28 Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 42/43 May cause sensitisation by inhalation and skin contact
R 48/20 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
R 48/21 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
R 48/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
R 48/20/21 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
R 48/20/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
R 48/21/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 48/20/21/22   Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 48/23 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
R 48/24 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
R 48/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
R 48/23/24 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
R 48/23/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
R 48/24/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 48/23/24/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 50/53 Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R 51/53 Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R 52/53 Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R 68/20 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation
R 68/21 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin
R 68/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed
R 68/20/21 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R 68/20/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R 68/21/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R 68/20/21/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

 

Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations: S-phrases
S 1 Keep locked up
S 2 Keep out of the reach of children
S 3 Keep in a cool place
S 4 Keep away from living quarters
S 5 Keep contents under ... (appropriate liquid to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 6 Keep under ... (inert gas to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 7 Keep container tightly closed
S 8 Keep container dry
S 9 Keep container in a well-ventilated place
S 12 Do not keep the container sealed
S 13 Keep away from food, drink and animal feedingstuffs
S 14   Keep away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S 15 Keep away from heat
S 16 Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking
S 17 Keep away from combustible material
S 18 Handle and open container with care
S 20 When using do not eat or drink
S 21 When using do not smoke
S 22 Do not breathe dust
S 23 Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 24 Avoid contact with skin
S 25 Avoid contact with eyes
S 26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
S 27 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing
S 28 After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 29 Do not empty into drains
S 30 Never add water to this product
S 33 Take precautionary measures against static discharges
S 35 This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way
S 36 Wear suitable protective clothing
S 37 Wear suitable gloves
S 38 In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment
S 39 Wear eye/face protection
S 40 To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 41 In case of fire and/or explosion do not breathe fumes
S 42 During fumigation/spraying wear suitable respiratory equipment (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 43 In case of fire, use ... (indicate in the space the precise type of fire-fighting equipment. If water increases risk, add "Never use water")
S 45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible)
S 46 If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label
S 47 Keep at temperature not exceeding ... °C (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 48 Keep wet with ... (appropriate material to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 49 Keep only in the original container
S 50 Do not mix with ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 51 Use only in well-ventilated areas
S 52 Not recommended for interior use on large surface areas
S 53 Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use
S 56 Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point
S 57 Use appropriate container to avoid environmental contamination
S 59 Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling
S 60 This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste
S 61 Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheets
S 62 If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label
S 63 In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest
S 64   If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious)

 


Combination of S-phrases
S 1/2 Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
S 3/7 Keep container tightly closed in a cool place
S 3/9/14 Keep in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S 3/9/14/49   Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S 3/9/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place
S 3/14 Keep in a cool place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S 7/8 Keep container tightly closed and dry
S 7/9 Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place
S 7/47 Keep container tightly closed and at a temperature not exceeding ... °C (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 20/21 When using do not eat, drink or smoke
S 24/25 Avoid contact with skin and eyes
S 27/28 After contact with skin, take off immediately all contaminated clothing, and wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S 29/35 Do not empty into drains; dispose of this material and its container in a safe way
S 29/56 Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point
S 36/37 Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves
S 36/37/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
S 36/39 Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection
S 37/39 Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection
S 47/49 Keep only in the original container at a temperature not exceeding ... °C (to be specified by the manufacturer)
 
References

[1] Source: EC-Directive 2001/59/EC; Annex II
[2] Source: EC-Directive 92/32/EEC
[3] Source: EC-Directive 2001/59/EC; Annex III